br Quality of oncology nursing care br
3.3. Quality of oncology nursing care
3.3.1. Internal consistency reliability
For the QONCS scale, Cronhach's alpha was found good for all the dimensions and the total scale, ranging from 0.78 to 0.95.
3.4. Correlations between individualized care and quality oncology nursing care
The third research question explored whether there were any cor-relations between individualized care and quality oncology nursing care. Based on data analysis, Taxol statistically significant (p < 0.01) po-sitive correlation was observed between the two scales of ICS, i.e. ICS-A (The Support of Individuality) and ΙCS-B (The individuality in Care Received) (r = 0.80), all the subscales, i.e. Clinical Situation (r = 0.45, 0.27, 0.41, 0.42), Personal life situation (r = 0.30, 0.51, 0.44, 0.35) and Decision control (r = 0.35, 0.46, 0.35, 0.40), and four of the dimen-sions of QONCS, i.e. “Being supported and confirmed”, “Being cared for religiously and spiritually”, “Sense of Belonging” and “Being re-spected”. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) correlation was ob-served between the two scales of ICS, i.e. ICS-A and ΙCS-B, all the subscales, i.e. Clinical Situation, Personal life situation and Decision control, and the fifth dimension of QONCS, i.e. “Being valued” (Table 5).
Regarding the correlations between the five dimensions of QONCS the following statistically significant correlations were observed (Table 5). “Being supported and confirmed” was positively related to “Sense of belonging” and “Being respected” (r = 0.53 and 0.71 re-spectively, p < 0.01). “Being cared for religiously and spiritually” was positively related to “Sense of belonging” (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) and negatively related to “Being valued” (r = −0.16, p < 0.05). “Sense of belonging” was positively related to “Being respected” (r = 0.45, p < 0.01).
3.5. Multivariate models
Two linear regression models were fitted; a) Support of Individuality (dependent variable) on the QONCS subscales (in-dependent variables), b) The individuality of Care Received (depen-dent) on the QONCS subscales (independent variables). The model as-sumptions of normality of residuals and heteroscedasticity were validated using a normal QQ-plot and a Predicted vs Residual scatter-plot. There was no significant multicollinearity as observed via the Variance Inflation Factors (models’ VIF < 2). The analysis revealed the following:
QONCS - Quality of Oncology Nursing Scale Scores: Descriptive statistics across QONCS subscales and internal consistency index (Cronbach's alpha).
Mean SD SE Median Minimum Maximum Cronbach's alpha
QONCS - Quality of Oncology Nursing Scale
Note:SD=Standard Deviation SE=Standard Error.
Support of Individuality.
3.6. Summary of the findings
Firstly, species packing was found that the higher the support of individuality is, the higher are the following: total individuality in care received, in-dividuality in clinical situation, individuality in personal life situation and individuality in decision control, and vice-versa. In addition, the higher the support of individuality, the total individuality in care re-ceived, the individuality in clinical situation, the individuality in per-sonal life situation and the individuality in decision control are, the stronger is the feeling that the patient belongs and is being supported and confirmed, cared for religiously and spiritually and respected, and vice-versa.
Secondly, it was found that the more the patients are being sup-ported and confirmed, the more they have a sense of belonging; the more they are being cared for religiously and spiritually the more they have a sense of belonging and the less they feel valued, and vice-versa. Finally, the more the patients feel a sense of belonging, the more they feel respected, and vice-versa.
Thirdly, the analysis for the joint association of the QONCS sub-scales with the Individuality showed that Being supported and confirmed, Being cared for religiously and spiritually and Being respected are asso-ciated with increased level of Support of the Individuality. Moreover, Being cared for religiously and spiritually and Being respected associated with increased levels of Individuality in Care Received.
The findings of this study provided evidence on the importance of providing individualized care to patients diagnosed with cancer, in order to achieve quality nursing care, which, in this study as in other studies (e.g. Theodorou et al., 2012), were positively correlated. In fact, patients diagnosed with cancer often express the desire to be seen as unique persons with individual needs (Browall et al., 2013). As con-firmed in a 20-week prospective cohort study (i.e. 10 weeks using standard of care, 10 weeks using individualized care plans) by Hird et al. (2015), individualized care is a prerequisite for the eﬀectiveness of cancer treatment. In addition, as young adult patients with cancer stressed in a study by Jacobsen et al. (2015), an important component of quality care was feeling that they were ‘not just a number’ but a unique individual that was seen as a person, separate from the disease. Although quality nursing care ought to be individualized as part of an eﬀective treatment, the findings showed only a medium level of per-ceived support of patients' individuality provided by nurses. The above finding though may be related to cultural and personal factors and previous experiences that influence the perception of care provided to patients diagnosed with cancer (Radwin et al., 2013; Yates, 2012).